The Profi-Car Dictionary

A-G

ACEA (abbreviation for Association des Constructeurs Européens d`Automobiles); founded in February 1991, successor of CCMC 

This board has developed new classifications for the use of engine oils in petrol, passenger vehicle diesel and motor vehicle diesel engines. (ACEA European Oil Sequences for Service Fill Oils). 

Alterations to the CCMC standards: 

1. Updating of the requirements and the employed engine tests in order to achieve an up-to-date testing of the lubricants and to comply with the more exacting requirements due to the current engine technology. 

2. Introduction of a quality management system for registering test results. The new system stipulates that all measured results (of the reference test as well as of the actual candidate test) have to be registered with the European Registration Centre. It is intended to make ACEA tests auditable by neutral authorities and to avoid ACEA classifications are granted for products that have not been tested. 

Thus ACEA classifications show a higher current performance level than the formerly used CCMC categories. 

Since the beginning of January 1996, the new ACEA classifications have been introduced and divided up into 3 different categories: 

A for cars with gasoline engines 
B for light diesel engines (PWK, Van, Transporter) 
C Katalysatorenverträgliche oils (commercial vehicles) 
E for heavy diesel engines 


ACEA - specification for petrol (A) and diesel (B) 
Class: Status: Application / Requirements: 
- A1/B1: current: motor oils for gasoline and light diesel oil with lower friction coefficient and low viscosity (light running) it will operate. HTHS viscosity from 2.6 to 3.5 mPas. 
- A2/B2: withdrawn: Conventional and low-friction engine oils. 
- A3/B3: current: Stable high-performance motor oils for gasoline and light diesel engines with extended oil change intervals if the engine manufacturer provided; u / od for year-round use of low-viscosity oils; u / od for severe operating conditions, defined by the engine manufacturers. HTHS viscosity of ≥ 3.5 mPas. Exceeds A1/B1 and A2/B2 regarding piston cleanliness and oxidation stability. 
- A3/B4: current: Stable high-performance motor oils for gasoline and light diesel engines with direct injection. Higher requirements for direct injection diesel engines (designated B4). Also used for applications that have been described in B3. HTHS viscosity of ≥ 3.5 mPas. 
- A5/B5: current: Stable high-performance engine oils with extended oil change intervals for both petrol and light diesel engines that are designed mPas for oils with low friction coefficient and low viscosity, light running) and a viscosity of HTHS ≥ 2.9. 

ACEA - specifications for petrol and diesel engines with new engine system 
Class: Status: Application / Requirements 
- C1: News: Strong, katalysatorverträgliche performance oils for use in vehicles with gasoline and light diesel engines, diesel particulate filter and three-way oil having a low coefficient of friction, low viscosity, low SAPS (sulphated ash, phosphorus, sulfur) and with a HTHS 2, 9 mPas tolerated. These oils are to extend the catalyst and filter life and kraftstoffeinsparend be. 
- C2: current: Stable, katalysatorverträgliche high-performance oils for use in vehicles with gasoline and light diesel engines, diesel particulate filter and three-way, the oils with a low friction coefficient, low viscosity and tolerate a HTHS about 2.9 mPas. These oils are to extend the catalyst and filter life and kraftstoffeinsparend contribute. 
- C3: current: Stable, High katalysatorverträgliche oils for use in vehicles with gasoline and light diesel engines, diesel particulate filter and three-way. These oils are to extend the catalyst and filter life. 

ACEA - Specification for truck diesel engines 
Class: Status: Application / Requirements 
- E1: withdrawn: Same as far as possible the existing CCMC D 4 
- E2: withdrawn: general-purpose oil for naturally ventilated, super-charged heavy diesel engines, medium to heavy loads. 
- E3: withdrawn: Based largely on MB 228.1. In addition, Mack 8 test. 
- E4: current: Stable high-performance oils with excellent control of piston cleanliness, wear, soot formation and lubricant stability. Recommended for supercharged diesel engines that meet the Euro I - IV emission requirements and running under very severe conditions, or highly extended oil change intervals. Suitable for engines without particulate filters. 
- E5: withdrawn: Category for EURO III engines, E4 to reduced ash content in comparison. Quality level between ACEA E3 and E4. 
- E6: current: Stable high-performance oils with excellent control of piston cleanliness, wear, soot formation and lubricant stability. Recommended for supercharged diesel engines that meet the Euro I - IV emission requirements and running under very severe conditions, or highly extended oil change intervals. They are suitable for EGR engines with and without particulate filter and for engines with SCR NOx reduction systems. E6-oils, recommended for engines with particulate filters were ppm for use with low sulfur fuels (<50) developed. 
- E7: current: Stable high-performance oils with excellent control of piston cleanliness and bore polishing. In addition, they should check to a high degree of wear, the deposit formation in the turbocharger and the formation of soot. Recommended for supercharged diesel engines that meet the Euro I - IV exhaust system requirements and run under very heavy duty characteristics-en, or highly extended drain intervals. E7-oils are recommended for engines without particulate filters, for most of EGR engines and most engines with SCR NOx reduction systems. 
- E9: current: motors with / without a diesel particulate filter of most EGR engines and most of the SCR NOX engines, for engines with a diesel particulate filter in combination with sulfur-free fuel. Sulfate ash content max. 1%.

Engine and gear noises, running noises or other types of acoustical effects impair the driver's powers of concentration and reduce the driving comfort. 

Sound-absorbing materials that have been developed particularly for reducing the above-mentioned negative effects result in a distinct reduction of the noise level within the vehicle and enable the driver to steer the vehicle under less stressful conditions. 

In most cases, the sound insulating materials are mounted in the form of mats inside the bonnet or also on the inside lining of the doors.

Additives are soluble in oil additives and base oils can be mixed to achieve oil properties necessary for operation in the base oil but not so far. Furthermore, they are added to the finished products even at maximum operating load over a period as possible were to get operational. 
In summary, this means that the additives affect the chemical properties of the base oil and change or improve. Only when all the additives in the right proportion zueinender are present in the oil, the maximum impact possible. There is additive for gasoline, diesel, oil and coolant. 

Abrasive wear, the formation of water in the tank, combustion residues, etc., have an influence on the optimum combustion of fuel. The formation of dirt and coke in the combustion chamber, on valves and injectors also have a negative impact on the engine performance. 
Fuel consumption increases, the emission of pollutants increases, the engine bucks… 

Fuel additives remove and/or reduce the above-mentioned factors and contribute to an increase in performance an thus a reduced fuel consumption of the engine to a large extent. Negative environmental effects are also influenced in a positive way. 

With increasing age, the interior of the engine and thus also its performance is impaired by friction and/or wear. In addition to the development of mechanical alterations, seals also get porous. Typical consequences are a loud engine noise and/or a slight loss of oil. 

Engine oil additives are used to enhance the oil viscosity according to the type of application in order to achieve an increased quiet running of the engine via better lubricating properties. Specific additives (softeners, refreshers) make gaskets swell again and/or make them elastic. 

For the users, the advantage may be a better running behaviour of the engine and/or a sealing of minor leakages without expensive shop works. 

Radiator additives have two functions when added to the cooling water: 

1. Radiator cleaning agent: 
Cleans the water passages of the radiator and thus contributes to an increased action and/or to protection against overheating. 

2. Radiator sealant: 
Seals minor leakages in the entire cooling system 

API stands for American Petroleum Institute and is a conventional US measure for density. The API grade provides information on the chemical composition and thus on the quality of oil. 
In general, the API value of an oil consists of 2 parts: 


Example: API SJ/CF 
S = stands for "Service Oils" - use in petrol engines. 
J = provides information on the quality of the oil when used in petrol engines. 
C = for "Commercial Oils"- use in diesel engines. 
F = provides information on the quality of the oil when used in diesel engines. 

The following qualities haven been classified according to API up to the present: 

API classifications for Otto engines 
Class: Status: Application / Requirements 
- SA: no longer valid: Regular motor oils possibly with Stockpunktverbesserer and / or foam inhibitors. 
- SB: no longer valid: Wenigbeanspruchte petrol engine oils with additives to aging, corrosion and wear. Since 1930. 
- SC: No longer valid: Otto engine oils which are exposed to average operating conditions. With active ingredients to corking, cold sludge, aging, corrosion and wear. From 1964 - 1971st 
- SD: no longer valid: Otto engine oils with higher operating conditions than API-SC. Of 1968 - 1971st 
- SE: no longer valid: Motor Oils for very high standards and highly contaminated Ottomo motors (stop-and-go traffic). From 1971 - 1979. 
- SF: no longer valid: Motor Oils for very high standards and highly contaminated petrol engines (Stop-and-go traffic). From 1980 - 1987. Exceeds API-SE in oxidation stability, wear protection and Schlammtragevermögen. 
- SG: obsolete: Motor Oils with the highest requirements, special tests for oxidation stability and sludge formation. From 1987 - 1993. 
- SH: date: Meets largely API SG, concerning additional requirements HTHS, evaporation, filtration, foam behavior and flash point. From 1993 - 1996. 
- SJ: current: succeeded to SPI-SH. Stricter requirements for evaporation loss. 
- SL: news: Once again, more stringent requirements regarding oil consumption, Motorauberkeit and aging behavior. For extended Ölwechselintervale. introduced in 2001. 
- SM: current: Once again tightened requirements for oxidation stability, engine cleanliness, wear protection, aging behavior and performance at low temperature 

API classifications for diesel engines 
Class: Status: Application / Requirements 
- CA: no longer valid: For easy claimed gasoline and diesel engines operated on low sulfur fuels. Suitable for motors up to the 50. 
- CB: No longer valid: for mild to mittelbelastete gasoline and diesel self-priming, which are operated with sulfur-rich fuels. Engines 1949. Provide protection against high temperature deposits and bearing corrosion. 
- CC: No longer valid: For gasoline and diesel engines, the moderate to severe operating conditions are exposed. Provide protection against cold sludge, corrosion and high temperature deposits. 1961. 
- CD: obsolete: motor oils for heavily loaded diesel engines with and without charge. introduced 1955th 
- Outdated CD II:: Meets API CD met the additional requirements of two-stroke diesel engines Increased protection against wear and deposits. introduced 1987th 
- CE: obsolete: motor oils for heavily loaded and high-speed diesel engines with and without charge, which are often highly variable loads. Increased protection against Öleindickung and wear, improved piston cleanliness. instead of API CC and CD can be used. introduced 1987th 
- CF: News: Replaced from 1994 API CD. For highly supercharged diesel engines. High ash. Suitable for diesel fuels with sulfur content> 0.5%. 
- CF-2: current: Only for two-stroke diesel engines. Replaced from 1994 API-CD II 
- CF-4: obsolete: For fast and supercharged four-stroke diesel engines. Covers the requirements of API CD, CE, supplemented by requirements for oil consumption and piston cleanliness. introduced 1990th 
- CG-4: current: For heavy-duty truck engines. Take into account EPA emission boundaries after 1994. Detergiereigenschaften better and better foaming properties as API CF-4. Can instead of API CD, CE and CF 4 are used. introduced in 1995. 
- CH-4: current: designed for high-revving four-stroke engines, the stringent new Abgasverordungen. Comparable with ACEA E5, lower Aschegahalt. For sulfur content to 0.5%. Can instead of API CD, CE, CF-4, CG-4 and can be used. introduced in 1998. 
- CI-4: current: For high-revving four-stroke engines, the emissions laws in the future only can fulfill using exhaust gas recirculation. For sulfur content to 0.5%. Can instead of API CD, CE, CF-4, CG-4 and CH 4 can be used. introduced in 2002. 
- CJ-4: current: For high-revving four-stroke engines to meet the required starting in 2007, "highway emissions standards. Especially for vehicles with particulate filter systems and sulfur contents up to 0.0015%. introduced in 2006 

API classifications for Bikes 
Class: Application / Requirements 
- TA (TSC-1): for mopeds 
- TB (TSC-2): For scooters and motorcycles 
- TC (TSC-3): For the high-speed engines 

API - Specifications for outboard after NMMA 
(National Marine Manufacturers Association) 
Class: Status 
- TC-W: no longer valid 
- TCW: no longer valid 
- TC-WII: no longer valid 
- NMMA TC-W3: 1996 current specification 

Used to transfer from the hydraulic brake booster to the brake assemblies to the brake discs of the vehicles. 
It is used for transmission from the hydraulic brake booster to the brake assemblies to the brake discs of the vehicles. In particular, one sees below the fluids based on polyglycols. The are used by some car manufacturers in the braking system used hydraulic fluids based on mineral oil is not usually referred to as brake fluid, to avoid if only a dangerous confusion. 
Basically, the following requirements are met: 
A high boiling point for safety even in extreme conditions must be guaranteed. The brake fluid must be optimal corrosion protection and optimum lubrication of the system offer. Brake fluids are hygroscopic (water absorbing), so the changes recommended at specific intervals. 
There are different quality levels, which are divided into "DOT". 

Ceramics: A substance revolutionises the lubricant domain 

It is a known fact that the automobile industry has been working flat out on the development of ceramic engines. These ceramics are already being used successfully in racing. Space industry also carries out research in that area and has found in the framework of their development program that ceramic products guarantee optimum lubrication even under extreme conditions. 

The result of this is that ceramic materials are used more and more frequently for preventive measures for internal engine protection and replace substances like PTFE that have been used before. 

When comparing ceramic materials to PTFE (e.g. teflon), the advantages of ceramic materials become clear: 

PTFE Ceramic material 

Frictional coefficient 0.04 - 0.5 0.02 - 0.15 
Heat-trensfer coefficient 0.24 W/mk 40-70 W/mk 
Max. action temperature 260°C 900°C 
Decomposition temperature 260°C - 330°C ----- 
Transition temperature ------ 1000°C 
Particle size Identical Identical 
Polarity Non-polar Polar 
Adhesion to metal No Very good 
Lubricating properties up to 260°C 1,100°C 
Decomposition products Harmful (FCKW ) Not harmful 


The above-mentioned values are very plain. The frictional resistance of ceramic materials is 50% less than the one of PTFE. Another very good advantage is the good adhesion on metal. The excellent thermal transfer properties and the very high maximum action temperature guarantee an action of the product - even in the event of an extreme load on the engine. Ceramics are not toxic and are biodegradable in addition. They contain neither heavy metals ( MOS² ) nor do toxic gases develop during the combustion process (like for example with PTFE). For this reason, ceramics are environmentally neutral to a large extent. 

are added to the warm engine oil. The treatment is transported to the most friction-intensive parts of the engine via the oil. Through the internal engine pressure, the ceramic materials are integrated in the exposed surfaces like for example running surfaces, bearings, etc. The adhesion of the material increases in parallel to the frictional temperature so that the parts that are most exposed are also protected best. 

The surface smoothness increases immediately together with the adhesion of the material. This again leads to considerably lower frictional losses, whereas- supported by the extremely high heat-transfer coefficient of the ceramic material - a faster heat release is caused that can be seen in a decrease in oil temperature. For this reason, the oil remains more viscous and results in a reduced loss of oil in addition. 

CERAMIC ENGINE TREATMENT can be used for all petrol, diesel and gas engines. 

1 can ( 250 ml ) is enough for 5 litres of engine oil. For engines with a higher oil volume, increase the dosage in a ratio of 1 : 20. The mode of action becomes clearly noticeable up to a run performance of 50,000 km. 

In a summary, improvements that become actually very fast perceivable for the drivers can be resumed as follows on the basis of the test results: 

- Considerable decrease of engine wear by up to 50% and more 
- Considerable reduction of harmful exhaust gases, of CO and HC up to 35% 
- Increase in performance, depending on the state of the engine up to 15% 
- Fuel consumption reduced by up to 10 % 
- Decrease in oil temperature by up to 10% 
- Reduction of engine noise 
- Enhanced running culture of the engine 
- Clear increase in viscosity 
- Amelioration of the cold start properties 

These properties make sure that CERAMIC MOTOR TREATMENT can increase the life cycle of your engine by up to 50% when it is applied regularly at intervals of approx. 50,000 km.

In an internal combustion engine, there are many parts that spin at high speeds or extremely quickly rub against other parts. Therefore, we urgently needed a lubricant, since the wear and overheating due to friction would otherwise destroy the engine in no time. 
Engine oils are available in many varieties and qualities. Usually, you have the choice between the petroleum-derived mineral oil or the more expensive synthetic oil. It is important that the requirements of the vehicle manufacturer's minimum requirement. Typically, various types of oil to be mixed, the mixing of mineral and synthetic oil should be omitted but a precaution. 
Basically, the following requirements are met: 
It should protect seal ring gap between the piston and cylinders as well as corrosion, wear and deposits, and these include, therefore, increasingly dark coloration. It also provides an oil cooling for the engine oil cooler from inside by the heat transport to the sump or separate. Today's engine oils must be aging, therefore, be suitable for long oil change intervals. Moreover, the viscosity (fluidity) optimally be on cold or hot operation of the engine. Another requirement of the oil it is the combustion pressure from the piston on the connecting rod to the crankshaft to transfer. 
Engine oils are classified in different viscosities and allocated according to degree of alloying additives or different classifications. Common specifications for this example, ACEA and API. 

A distinction is made among mineral, partly synthetic and fully synthetic engine oils. 

In most cases fully synthetic engine oils are built on the basis of PAO and have a particularly varied range of applications regarding temperature behaviour as well as the performance spectrum itself. The latest generation of engines, in particular those with longer oil change intervals, is normally used with fully synthetic engine oils. 

Typical viscosities within this product group are e.g. SAE 0W-30 or SAE 5W-40. 

There is no unambiguous definition for the term partly or semi-synthetic engine oils. However, it is required when these oils are formulated that a certain part of synthetic oils and/or additives is contained in the total product. 

A typical viscosity for partly synthetic oils is e.g. SAE 10W-40. 

Regarding quality, partly synthetic oils have to be graded between fully synthetic and mineral products. 

In addition to the classical, partially and/or semi-synthetic oils, engine oils composed according to the HC technology are used increasingly often. 

Hydrocrack oils are produced from crude oil via thermal or catalytic cracking in hydrogen atmosphere and form the starting product for many multigrade engine oils. Hydrocrack oils are thermally more stable and provide for a more favourable viscosity and evaporability than other basic products. 

Mineral engine oils are divided up into single-grade and multi-grade engine oils. This group of oils is considered as the classic engine oil that was used as a basis for the continued development of e.g. partially synthetic engine oils in the course of time. 

Typical viscosities of mineral singe-grade engine oils are for example SAE 30 or SAE 40; 
the most commonly used engine oil in the multi-grade area is SAE 15W-40. 

Specially designed for motorcycle, outboard, but also two-stroke engines of the generation, which in part found in stationary use, own motor oil was developed. 4-stroke engine oils are different in composition to conventional motor oils here for example Cars designed and fitted with special additives for use in motorcycles. 

Through special Zuammensetzungen e.g. Special conditions such as special requirements of the engines in connection with clutch plates, the cooling or smokeless combustion explicitly considered. 

2-stroke engines 
A two-stroke engine is a piston-combustion engine that required for the Otto-cycle four-stroke engine, in contrast to only one upward and downward movement of the piston (stroke). 
They are specified according to API TC and approvals (eg Jaso) offered. Next, these oils both for the operation of the engines with water cooling and air cooling are used. 

4-stroke engines 
in four-stroke engine is a combustion engine, which needed for the cycle four strokes. A stroke is when the reciprocating motion of the piston from standstill in a direction to re-arrest. The crankshaft therefore performs during a bar a half turn. From the thermodynamic method produces distinguished gasoline and diesel engines. 

As in the engine, resulting in large transmission friction, which would destroy in a short time. Motor vehicles are now equipped with a variety of different gears, which represents high demands on the lubricant. For example, switching, axle, automatic transmission or distribution. 
It is important that the requirements of the vehicle manufacturer's minimum requirement. Note, however, that can not be mixed with each other all gear oils. This is because they are built very differently and thus suitable for various gear. 
Basically, the following requirements are met: 
Parts are to glide or roll each to be lubricated. The gearbox is cooled by heat transfer from inside the transmission housing or a separate oil cooler. It should protect the gear from corrosion, wear and deposits as well as before foaming. Today's gear oils must be aging, therefore, be suitable for long oil change intervals. They must also provide an accurate friction behavior of synchronizer rings for optimal switching. It is important that the forces the oil to the tooth flanks transfers. 

Depending on the application is made between ATF gear oil, conventional gear oils (Voll-/Teilsynthetisch/Mineralisch) and hypoid gear oils. 

Classifications of conventional or hypoid gear oils are made under "GL". 
ATF gear oils are based primarily on Dexron shares. 

For the use of gear oils necessarily the requirements of the automotive manufacturers are observed. 

Conventional gear oils are normally used for synchronised and non-synchronised change-speed gears. These oils are also suitable for lubricating differential gears and steering gears in motor vehicles. 

Classification is made under "GL". 

Hypoid gear oils have been developed specifically for hypoid gear pairs. 

As a rule, these gear oils are provided with specific EP agents and can therefore also be used under more difficult operational conditions and in the event of major temperature variations. 

Classification is made under "GL". 

The main task of the ATF (Automatic Transmission Fluid) oils ist the pressure transmission. The flow energy is converted through a transformer in a torque. Which are equipped with blades and brake bands or planetary gears sets hydraulically controlled and slowed down depending on the desired ratios. 
The ATF-oil comes in different specifications including the gearbox and the steering is used. It is an oil, whose components are particularly resistant to shearing and the little tendency to foam. In the engine or fuel it unfolds also properties that can be used apparently to clean the units. Above all, it dissolves impurities and keeps them in limbo. 

These oils are usually classified according to Dexron. 

GREASES & PASTES are available with an extreme long-term lubrication protection upon request. 

Lubricants shall be a place of lube oils, if economic or technical reasons, their use is beneficial or lubricants can not be used. This is for example the case when drain the oil would flow out and or the (permanent) oil supply would not be possible or too costly. 
Just need lubrication points which are not sufficiently protected against the ingress of dirt and water, are lubricated with grease, because the fat has a sealing collar. Moreover, cement is grease trap bearing loads better and have in the mixed and boundary friction better lubricating properties than oil. In most cases, it is not replaced or refilled, then it constitutes a lifetime lubrication. Lubricants are used on gears, taping, hinges, steering systems, various bearings, sliding surfaces and brake valves. 
Basically, the following requirements are met: 
Greases must remain at low temperatures soft, supple and eligible. At high temperatures drop they are not allowed. They also have hot water (in cooling water pumps) and compatible with paint (on hinges) and dichtungsverträglich (not brittle, shrink or soften his). Since often a lifelong permanent filling is assumed to be extremely lubricants to aging. 

( GREASES & PASTES include only products for the industrial sector. Other GREASES & PASTES can be found under GREASES & PASTES MOTOR VEHICLES.) 

GREASES & PASTES are available with an extreme long-term lubrication protection upon request. 

Lubricants shall be a place of lube oils, if economic or technical reasons, their use is beneficial or lubricants can not be used. This is for example the case when drain the oil would flow out and or the (permanent) oil supply would not be possible or too costly. 
Just need lubrication points which are not sufficiently protected against the ingress of dirt and water, are lubricated with grease, because the fat has a sealing collar. Moreover, cement is grease trap bearing loads better and have in the mixed and boundary friction better lubricating properties than oil. In most cases, it is not replaced or refilled, then it constitutes a lifetime lubrication. Lubricants are used on gears, taping, hinges, steering systems, various bearings, sliding surfaces and brake valves. 
Basically, the following requirements are met: 
Greases must remain at low temperatures soft, supple and eligible. At high temperatures drop they are not allowed. They also have hot water (in cooling water pumps) and compatible with paint (on hinges) and dichtungsverträglich (not brittle, shrink or soften his). Since often a lifelong permanent filling is assumed to be extremely lubricants to aging. 

( GREASES & PASTES include only products for the automobile sector. Other GREASES & PASTES can be found under GREASES & PASTES. 

 

H-O

Specific oils and/or greases are used for industrial applications. They have been developed for the use in machines, aggregates or complete machining centres. 

Industrial lubricants are classified according to DIN 51502, DIN ISO 6743, Parts 0 to 15. 

For specific notes on application, see our separate explanations contained in this encyclopaedia. 

The NLGI class (penetration class) divides lubricating greases up into the relevant consistency groups according to DIN 51818. We differentiate between viscous oils, soft grease, standard grease and solid grease. 

The NLGI classes include classes 000 (maximum walk penetration) = 445 to 475) to NLGI 6 (minimum walk penetration = 85 to 115 )

The purpose of engine oils is mainly to reduce friction between two surfaces, to remove it at best - therefore to lubricate. 
Friction produces heat. 
For this reason, an engine oil has to absorb the heat and to cool it. 
This is carried out via the transport from the oil cooler and to the sump; 
Sealing of the annular clearance between piston and cylinder; 
Protect the motor against corrosion; 
Transfer the combustion pressure from the piston to the connecting rod, to the crankshaft; 
Control the viscosity-temperature behaviour in order to achieve an optimum functioning in hot and cold state; 
It has to be gasket-compatible in order to prevent the engine gaskets (elastomers) from drying out, becoming brittle or softening as well. 
It has to be age-resistant in order to guarantee long oil change intervals. 
These are only the most important aspects. There are approximately 50 others that are included in the service instructions of automobile manufacturers. 


All basic oils for lubricating and hydraulic oils and fuels, heating oil, bitumen and also many plastic materials are produced on the basis of - in addition to vegetable oils like for example rapeseed oil - crude oil. Regarding their composition, the above-mentioned products are all combinations of the elements carbon ( C = carboneum ) and hydrogen ( H = hydrogenum ) that differ mainly due to the extremely varying size of the hydrocarbon molecules. The simplest hydrocarbon is methane CH4, it is for example also the main component of natural gas. In practice, an almost unlimited variety of molecules with different sizes is possible. On the basis of the C atoms in the molecule, they can be classified as follows: 

Natural gas: methane C1 
Petroleum gas: Ethane C2, propane C3, butane C4 
Petrol / four-star petrol C5 to C12 
Diesel / heating oil EL C10 to C20 
Lubricating oils C20 to C35 
Vacuum gas oil / heating oil over C35 
Bitumen over C80 
Plastic materials (plastic) 

We classify them as follows: 

Raffinates: 
Starting product: crude oil. Oldest production procedure for lubricating and hydraulic oils; many standard products today are still raffinates. 
Production run: 
Distilling: Heating/evaporating/condensing of crude oil and extraction 
of petrol and middle distillate (diesel, heating oil EL) in the process. 
Vacuum distilling: Residues from distillation are distilled under vacuum, oils of varying viscosities are extracted. 
Refining: Removing of undesirable components, thus improvement of e.g. ageing stability. 
Deparaffininising: Freezing out of paraffin, thus improvement of the low-temperature behaviour. 
Final products in the pure extraction form: Mineral lubricating oils. 


Hydrocrack oils (HC synthesis). 
Starting product: Paraffin slack wax resulting from deparaffinisation of raffinate or vacuum gas oil from vacuum distillation. 
Production run: 
Cracking + hydrating (hydrocracking): Cracking of the very long hydrocarbon molecules, e.g. of vacuum gas oil, to the size of lubricating molecules. Unsaturated cracks are saturated (hydrated) with hydrogen. 
Vacuum distilling: Extracting of several oils with varying viscosities. 
Deparaffininising: Freezing out of paraffin, thus improvement of the cold procedure. 
Final products in the pure extraction form: Partially but also fully synthetic lubricants. 

Synthetic hydrocarbons, starting product: Petrol or similar hydrocarbons. Extraction procedure for maximum quality as fully synthetic. 
Production run: 
Cracking: Petrol molecules are cracked up into even smaller gas molecules, either ethane or butane. 
Synthesis: Combining of ethane to poly-alpha-olefin ( PAO ) or butane to poly-iso-butene (PIB). 
Vacuum distilling: Extracting of several oils with varying viscosities. 
Hydrating (only with PAO): Still existing unsaturated cracks are saturated with hydrogen. 
Final products in the pure extraction form: Fully synthetic lubricating oils. 

Practial behaviour of the oils: 
Raffinates: 
Raffinates have a normal ageing stability and can be produced at a relatively low cost. The lower viscosity, the higher the evaporation loss at high temperatures and thus the engine oil consumption conditioned by the oil. Their low-temperature behaviour (pour point) is medium and has to be ameliorated using additives in most cases. Their viscosity index ( VI ) is approx. 90 to 100, i.e. they are single-grade oils. If a multigrade oil is to be produced on this basis, this is only possible when viscosity index improvers are used. 
Hydrocrack oils and synthetic hydrocarbons: 
The specific advantage of these basic oil types compared to conventional raffinates is their considerably more uniform composition. As a result, they have a much higher ageing stability and a reduced evaporation loss. Their viscosity index ( VI ) is 130 to 150, they are multigrade oils. The low-temperature behaviour is particularly good with PAO, the pour point is below -50 °C. On account of more expensive production procedures, however, the basic oil price of hydrocrack oils as well as synthetic hydrocarbons (e.g. PAO) is clearly higher than the one for raffinates. 

Additives: 
The exacting requirements for lubricants in motor vehicles can only be fulfilled through the use of oils with specific, oil-soluble additives. The type and the quantity of the additives have to be adjusted exactly to the relevant case of application. The additive share may be less than 1% up to 25%. The performance of the ready-formulated lubricants has to be proven in comprehensive, standardised and practically oriented tests. 

Additives have the following properties and/or tasks: 
Detergents: 
Prevent/reduce/wash off paint and coal-like deposits on hot components (in particular pistons). Neutralise acid combustion products. 
Dispersants: 
Prevent/reduce formation and depositing of sludge at low operating temperatures. Neutralise acid combustion products. 
Wear protection: 
Protect metal surfaces against wear. 
Corrosion protection: 
Protect metal surfaces against corrosion. 
Friction coefficient modifying agent: 
Reduce/adjust friction between surfaces 
Viscosity index improver: 
Sufficient viscosity at high oil temperatures. 
Pour point reducers: 
Reduce the pour point 
Elastomere swellers: 
Prevent shrinking (drying out) of rotary shaft seals when specific synthetic hydrocarbons are used. 
Age-protecting agents: 
Prevent/reduce formation of resin, paintwork, sludge, acid, polymer-like oil ageing products. 
Metal deactivating agents: 
Prevent/reduce the catalytic influence of finest metal particles on oil ageing. 
Antifoaming agents: 
Prevent/reduce formation of foam. 


ACEA - see separate explanation in this encyclopaedia 

API - see separate explanation in this encyclopaedia 

SAE - see separate explanation in this encyclopaedia 

P-Z

Paintwork care products are specific products for the use in vehicle reconditioning centres, car washs, car dealers or simply for very demanding customers. Highly active components like for example carnauba wax are combined with as little base material as possible and thus form a maximum-quality basis. 

The PROFI-BIKE series has been developed specifically for the bike market, but also for the use in e.g. outboard motors. Carefully selected base and carrier materials, combined with highly effective additives, result in products that are highly efficient with regard to action and are thus suited for shops as well as for end users in particular. 

In the chemical sector, we work with the latest, very modern lubricants. They are integrated in our series CERAMIC LINE and offer enormous advantages (see product description). We would like to highlight CERAMIC MOTOR TREATMENT or also our CERAMIC CHAIN SPRAY that has a period of action 300 % longer compared to other conventional chain sprays. 

More and more emphasis is placed on security for two-wheeled vehicles. For this reason, we offer you the invisible wipers for helmet visors: ANTI AQUA. The rain almost completely trickles down the visor. Visibility is high again. 

For our 2-stroke and 4-stroke engine oil series, we use the best base oils from Northern Europe and combine them with highly effective, up to date additive packages. Specific formulations for our 4-stroke oils preventing clutch slippage are used as a standard. We have low-smoke versions in our program for our 2-stroke oils; this is important for cities with an extreme 2-stroke circulation. PROFI-BIKE oils are successfully used for different races. 

The PROFI-CAR series has been developed specifically for the motor vehicle sector. Carefully selected base oils, combined with highly effective additives, result in products that are highly efficient with regard to action and quality and are therefore ideally suited for shops, service centres, but also for the end user. 

The majority of our fully synthetic products are designed on a PAO basis, partially in combination with ESTER additives. However, we also bet on the considerably enhanced HC technology of the new generation. Only the permanent development of the PROFI-CAR products guarantees that our oils exceed the requirements of the automobile manufacturers and thus are always up to date. 

Our service products (aerosols) are bottled almost exclusively using pure well carbonic acid. This enables us to fill a can with up to 99% of the active agent, contrary to propane/butane bottling of other manufacturers. 

Our additives, like for example: INJECTION-CLEANER, contain large quantities of concentrated additives. Carrier media have be reduced to the minimum. The effect: You perceive the difference and do not only have to believe in it. 

Within our chemical sector, we work with the most modern and most effective components. We offer e.g. our CERAMIC LINE series today with the material of tomorrow: CERAMIC PROFESSIONAL CAR TECHNOLOGY 

The PROFI-CAR series has been developed specifically for the motor vehicle sector. Carefully selected base and carrier materials, combined with highly effective additives, result in products that are highly efficient with regard to action and quality and are therefore ideally suited for shops and service centres. 

We use only the best base oils for our engine oils and combine these with up-to-date additive packages. The majority of our fully synthetic products is based on PAO in combination with ESTER additives. However, we also bet on the considerably enhanced HC technology of the new generation. Only the permanent development of PROFI-CAR products guarantees that the majority of our oils exceed the requirements of automobile manufacturers and thus provides an optimum protection for your engine. 

In the chemical sector, we would like to present you our CERAMIC LINE that contains probably the most modern substance of lubrication technology: Ceramics. 

Our service products (aerosols) are bottled almost exclusively using pure well carbonic acid. This enables us to fill a can with up to 99% of the active agent, contrary to propane/butane bottling of other manufacturers. 

Our additives, like for example: INJECTION-CLEANER, contain large quantities of concentrated additives. Carrier media have be reduced to the minimum. The effect: You perceive the difference and do not only have to believe in it. 

Our industrial program has a comprehensive, well assorted range combining efficiency, performance and aspects of environmental protection. 

Products for heavy-duty applications like for example: Deep drilling, turning, grinding or wire drawing are standard as oils and/or liquids for hydraulic systems, machines, gear units, bed tracks and the food industry… In addition, our product range offers grease and pastes for all common applications, but also for specific applications. 

When developing our PROFI-LUBE products, we can fall back on long-term experience in that area. This enables us to deliver lubricants that have excellent properties in the low-high temperature ranges, for friction and wear reduction, for corrosion protection.
Naturally requirements regarding the gasket compatibility and toxicological and environment-protection safeness are taken into consideration. 

The synergetic effects resulting form state-of-the-art research and close co-operation with our customers are reflected on our high-quality products to the advantage of our business partners. 

The task of antifreeze is the controlled discharge of the combustion heat from the engine to the radiator. In addition, the cooling system must be year-round from corrosion, overheating and protect from frost in winter. It should be neutral on rubber and plastics and have a low tendency to foam. Also, a security must be guaranteed against swallowed by a bitter substance. It is important that the Kühlermittel are recyclable. 

We differentiate between three commonly used radiator products: 

1. Radiator antifreeze (see Radiator antifreeze in the encyclopaedia) 

2. Radiator cleaning agent (see Additives - radiator products in the encyclopaedia) 

3. Radiator sealant (see Additives - radiator products in the encyclopaedia) 

Consumables like for example oils, brake fluids, etc., are subject among others to requirements of the engine and/or motor vehicle manufacturers. These standards are confirmed in the form of releases by the automobile manufacturers after having tested the respective consumables. Thus the users have clear indications as to which types of oils and/or consumables have basically been tested for this type of vehicle and have been released. 

BMW 
- BMW Special: Motor oils for gasoline engines built before 1998 or diesel engines. 
- BMW Longlife-98 motor oils for gasoline engines built since special 1998th 
- BMW Longlife-01: Motor Oils for special gasoline from year 01/09. 
- BMW Longlife-01 FE engine oils for gasoline engines from certain yoc 2001. 
- BMW Longlife-04: Motor Oils for certain engines built since 2004th 

Cummins 
- CES 20 071: Tests as API CH-4, but increased oil consumption allowed. Viscosity SAE 10W-30 or 15W-40. Sulphated ash max. 1.5%. 
- CES 20 072: Tests as ACEA E3-96 Cummins M1 plus an HST test. Viscosity SAE 10W-30, 10W-40 or 15W-40. Sulphated ash max. 1.85%. 
- CES 20 076: tests such as API CH-4, but with increased requirements. Viscosity SAE xW-30 or xW-40. Sulphated ash max. 1.85%. 
- CES 20 077: Tests such as ACEA E5 but with increased requirements. Viscosity SAE 10W-30, 10W-40 or 15W-40 sulfate ash max. 1.85%. 
- CES 20 078: Requirements comparable API CI-4 or MACK EO-N. 

Daewoo 
Recommends that the oil API-SJ. 

Daihatsu 
Recommends oil API HH, CD or better. 

Ford 
- WSS M2C 913-B: motor oils for all engines. 
- WSS-M2C 917-A: Motor Oils for 1.9 TDI diesel engines (process model of the Ford Galaxy) and 1.6 liter Zetec engines. 

Iveco 
Recommends the truck oils by ACEA E2, E3, E4 or E5. 

Mack 
- EO-K / 2: Where motor tests (Mack T-6 & T-7) and a field test over 200,000 miles. 
- EO-L: level of performance comparable to API CG-4. Engine tests Mack T Mack T-6 and-8. 
- EO-L +: EO-L compared to more stringent requirements in terms of wear. In addition, still required MACK T-9. 
- EO-M level of performance comparable to API CH-4 and Cummins CES 20071st Compared EO-L + were tightened requirements in terms of wear protection, and soil suspending kositätsabfall Vis. 
- EO-M +: EO-M on Opposite were tightened requirements for wear protection, viscosity waste and soil suspending. 
- EO-N: level of performance comparable to API CI-4 and Cummins CES 20078th 

MAN 
- MAN 270: Einbereichsmotorenöle for supercharged and turbocharged diesel engines. 
- MAN 271: multi-grade engine oil for supercharged diesel engines and nichtaufgeladene. 
- MAN M 3275: SHPD engine oils for all diesel engines and extended drain intervals to 45,000 km. (QC 13-017) 
- MAN M 3277: UHPD engine oils for all diesel engines and extended drain intervals to 80,000 km. TG-A New Generation of On-board computers for even longer intervals. 
- MAN M 3377: High performance engine oil for extended oil change intervals. Compared MAN M 3277 increased requirements in terms of deposits and piston cleanliness. The sulfate ash content is limited to max. 1.8% m-limited. 
- MAN 3271-1: engine oil for engines that run on gas (natural gas, propane or butane gas CNG / LPG). 
- MAN 3271-2: engine oil for stationary engines fueled by natural gas or sewage gas. 
- 3291 MAN: Erstbetriebsmotorenöle. 

Mazda 
Recommends oil API SG / CD or better. 

Mercedes-Benz 
- MB 228.3: diesel engines without particulate filters: OM 640, 642, 646, 611 in BR9xx (Sprinter). 
- MB 228.5: diesel engines without particulate filters: OM 640, 642, 646, 611 in BR9xx (Sprinter), 660th 
- MB 228.51: diesel engines without particulate filter: OM 640, 642 646, 611 in BR9xx (Sprinter), 660th 
Diesel particulate filter: OM 629, 640, 642, 646, 660 (EU3/EU4 with unusual-regulated particulate filter). 
Note: Use only in conjunction with low sulfur (<50ppm) Twin-free (<10ppm) fuel, otherwise reduce the oil change interval. 
- MB 229.1: gasoline engines: M 113th 
- MB 229.3: gasoline engines: M 155 (SLR) (only "Mobil 5W50), 122, 272, 273, 133, 132 (ROW), 266, 271 
Diesel engines without particulate filters: OM 640, 642, 646, 611 in BR9xx (Sprinter), 660th 
- MB 229.31: gasoline engines: M 132 (ROW), 266, 271 
Diesel engines without particulate filters: OM 640, 642, 646, 611 in BR9xx (Sprinter), 660th 
Diesel particulate filter: OM 629, 640, 642, 646, 660 (EU3/EU4 with unusual-regulated particulate filter). 
Note: Use only in conjunction with low sulfur (<50ppm) Twin-free (<10ppm) fuel, otherwise reduce the oil change interval. 
- MB 229.5: gasoline engines: M 156, M 285 (Maybach), AMG engines except M 155 (SLR) and M 156 (note: all only SAE 0W-40 or 5W-40). 
Gasoline engines: M 132 (USA), 275, 122, 272, 273, 113, 132 (ROW) 266, 271 
Diesel engines without particulate filters: OM 64, 642, 646, 611 in BR9xx (Sprinter), 660th 
- MB 229.51: gasoline engines: M 156 (note: only SAE 0W-40 or 5W-40), M 132 (ROW), 266, 271 
Diesel engines without particulate filters: OM 640, 642, 646, 611 in BR9xx (Sprinter), 660th 
Diesel engines without particulate filters: OM 629, 640, 642, 646, 660 (EUR3/EU4 with un-controlled filter). 
Note: Use only in conjunction with low sulfur (<50ppm) Twin-free (<10ppm) fuel, otherwise reduce the oil change interval. 

MTU 
- OilType1: Normal Quality (API CG-4, ACEA E2). 
- OilType1 +: Type 1 plus corrosion protection. 
- OilType2: higher quality (SHPD, ACEA E3). 
- OilType3: Highest quality (UHPD, ACEA E4). 

Nissan 
Recommended oils for gasoline engines by ACEA A2 or API SJ. For diesel oils according to ACEA B3 or API CF-4. 

Opel 
- GM-LL-A-025: motor oils for passenger car petrol engines from MJ'02, long service intervals, HTHS ≥ 2.9 mPas. 
- GM-LL-B-025: motor oils for passenger car petrol engines from MJ'02, long service intervals, HTHS ≥ 3.5 mPas, also suitable for all petrol and diesel engines before MJ'02. 
- Dexos 2: New engine oil category for petrol and diesel engines with new exhaust after-treatment systems (eg DPF) from Juli'09 / MJ'10, long service intervals, HTHS ≥ 3.5 mPas, also suitable for all petrol and diesel engines before MJ'10. 

Porsche 
Can oils according to API SJ ACEA A3 or recommended, but especially for Porsche ge-tested (911 engine), and especially shared = Motor Porsche share. 

Renault 
- E3R: power level between ACEA E3 and E4. 
- RLD / RVI RXD: Renault Long Distance Oil: performance level as ACEA E4. 

Scania 
Recommends ACEA A3/B3 or API oils after SH / CF or better. Scania LDF release required. The use of oils according E2/E3/E5 ACEA or API CG-4 is allowed in halved oil change intervals. In the particular case, the loading operating instructions are observed. 

Setra 
Recommended depending on the used motor oil by MAN or MB-specification. For Detroit Diesel engine oils to API CG-4 or CF-4 is recommended. 

Toyota 
Recommends oil API SF / SG / CD or better. 

VW (Audi, Seat, Skoda) 
- VW 501 01: all-season motor oils for gasoline engines with standard replacement intervals and low performance level. Therefore, only for older vehicles, is for current vehicles are no longer allowed. 
- VW 502 00: year-round light running for petrol engines with standard change intervals. 
- Replaces VW 503 00: No more up to date, was by VW 504 00th 
- VW 503 01: Retired, was replaced by VW 504 00th 
- VW 504 00: New VW standard for vehicles with long-life service. For gasoline engines. 
- VW 505 00: all-season motor oils for diesel engines and turbo-charged. 
- VW 505 01: Year-round engine oil designed for pump-injector diesel engines. 
- Replaces VW 506 00: No more up to date, was by VW 507 00th 
- VW 506 01: No more up to date, only for some engines, built in the past, mandatory. Replaced by VW 507 00th 
- VW 507 00: New VW standard for vehicles with and without long-life service. For diesel particulate filter system. 

Volvo 
- VDS: Volvo Drain Specification for extended oil change intervals (50,000 km). 
- VDS-2: Requirement for € 2 motors (60,000 km). 
- VDS-3: Specification for Euro 3 engines. Oil change intervals of up to 100,000 km 
- The use of oil as E2/E3/E4/E5 ACEA or API Cf, CF-4, CG-4, CH-4 and CI-4 is allowed for reduced oil change intervals. 

Due to manufacture the now resulting possibility oils for specific temperature operations, SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers refer to a union in the U.S.) SAE has defined classes. These have now been introduced in most countries of the world for the classification of motor oils and automotive gear oils. It corresponds to the meaning of this classification, that it makes only a classification of the viscosity. Information on the quality of the oils, their uses and their accessories may not give the division. In Germany, the SAE viscosity classes according to DIN 51 511 (engine) and DIN 51 512 (gear oils are specified). 
Herein are defined: 
Temperatures for the viscosity measurement, viscosity values and class assignment. 
The viscosity at a temperature of 100 ° C with engine and Getriebeölengemessen. In the engine area, but this is 
not practical. Therefore, in Germany, the temperature measured at 150 ° C in addition. 
Oils, for which the viscosity limits are set out in the cold state, have in addition the value "W" (winter). e.g. SAE 0W-30. 

Conventional viscosity classes are for example: 

J300 SAE - Motor: 

Monograde - Engine Oils 
In Monogrades VI will only measured at 100 ° C. Depending on the season or climate zone, an oil change be made in order to ensure sufficient lubrication of the engine. The class specifies a number indicating the lowest possible use of oils in winter temperature and summer oils, the maximum operating temperature. Winter oils will also receive nor the "W" as an identifier for a winter oil. 

Viscosity class Area of application Use at approx. 
in relation to climatic zone and/or time of the year Outside temperature 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
SAE 0W-5W Winter oil for nordic countries beyond -30 °C 
SAE 10W Winter oil 0 to -20 C° 
SAE 15W Winter oil -15 to +20 °C 
SAE 20W-20 Winter, summer oil, according to climatic zone -10 to +20 C° 
SAE 25W Winter oil fin mild climatic zones 0 to +30 °C 
SAE 30 Summer oil up to +30 C° 
SAE 40 Summer oil, for southern countries +15 to +40 C° 
SAE 50 Summer oil for tropical countries above +40 °C 

Multi-grade - Engine Oils 
For multi-grade oils, two viscosity classes are defined which are distinguished by a „W“. The number before the „W“ describes the lowest possible application temperature such as mono-grade oils. The number after the “W”, the summer number, determines the highest possible application temperature. The VI of a multi-grade oil is measured at 40°C and at 100°C. 

Viscosity class Area of application Use at approx. 
in relation to climatic zone and/or time of the year Outside temperature 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
SAE 0W-30 All-season oil below -30 to +30°C 
SAE 0W-40 All-season oil below -30 to +40°C 
SAE 5W-30 All-season oil below -20 to +40°C 
SAE 5W-40 All-season oil below -20 to +40°C 
SAE 5W-50 All-season oil below -20 to +50°C 
SAE 10W-30 All-season oil -20 to +20 C° 
SAE 10W-40 All-season oil -20 to +40 C° 
SAE 10W-50 All-season oil -20 to +50 C° 
SAE 15W-40 All-season oil -20 to +50 C° 
SAE 20W-50 All-season oil -10 to +40 C° 


Motor vehicle gear oils: 

Single-grade gear oils 
Viscosity class Area of application in relation to 
climatic zone and/or time of the year 
------------------------------------------------------- 
SAE 70 W Special oil for nordic countries 
SAE 75W Winter oil 
SAE 80W Winter oil 
SAE 90W Summer oil 
SAE 140W Summer oil for specific areas of use 

Multigrade gear oils 
Viscosity class Area of application in relation to 
climatic zone and/or time of the year 
------------------------------------------------------- 
SAE 75W-90 All-season oil 
SAE 80W-90 All-season oil 
SAE 85W-140 All-season oil/summer oil 

Note 
For motor vehicle gear oils, the selection of the SAE classes is carried out more rarely according to the climatic zone and/or the outside temperature, but rather according to the gear type, like for example change-speed gears, driving axle, planetary hub reduction axle, etc. 
For this reason, the manufacturers instructions have to be complied with in any case.

Today there is a wide variety of service products on offer. Unfortunately the customer can not discern existing, large differences in quality immediately when buying the products. 
Due to a lack of comparison, it is hardly possible to assess an ideal price-performance ratio by the end users as well. Yet there are serious differences. 

Our aerosols, for example are bottled almost exclusively using pure well carbon dioxide. This enables us to fill a can with up to 99% of the active agent, contrary to propane/butane bottling. Thus we achieve a much better price/performance ratio. 

Products like our CERAMIC CHAIN SPRAY can provide for a considerably longer useful life and/or for longer intervals of application when used with the corresponding specific additives. 
Here the users can save a lot of money despite higher purchase prices in the end.